Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/auth.php on line 154

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/auth.php:154) in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/auth.php on line 244

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/auth.php:154) in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/actions.php on line 131
Victims' Symptom : glossary:witness
 
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Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

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Witness

A witness is someone who has firsthand knowledge about a crime or dramatic event through their senses (e.g. seeing, hearing, smelling, touching) and can help certify important considerations to the crime or event. A witness who has seen the event firsthand is known as an eye-witness. Witnesses are often called before a court of law to testify in trials. ( Wikipedia)

Witnessing and PTSD

There are many different opinions if a victimIn different sciences the term victim has different meanings. The term is most often use in criminology, religion, psychotherapy and New Age context ... could be a reliable witness. Especially if the witness suffers from PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ..., and how could this symptoms influence his/her memory.

Sparr (2005) in his reviews about PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ... and witnessing gives variety of studies that have shown a relationship between PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ... and deficits in explicit memory function. TraumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event ... victimsIn different sciences the term victim has different meanings. The term is most often use in criminology, religion, psychotherapy and New Age context ... often, either willingly or unwillingly, take part in legal matters, therefore it is not surprising that considerable importance is attached to their recollections of the traumatic eventPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event .... One of such example is the trial at the International War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague in 1998, where for the first time psychiatric experts were invited to give their opinions about the nature and accuracy of explicit memory after experiencing traumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event ... in individuals with PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ....

The trial turned on the witness’s memory of her traumatic experiences (which were not in question) and her recollections with regard to the persons (especially the defendant) who were present during the traumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event .... The victimIn different sciences the term victim has different meanings. The term is most often use in criminology, religion, psychotherapy and New Age context ... and principal witness had been diagnosed with PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor .... The defendant’s lawyers suggested that the victimIn different sciences the term victim has different meanings. The term is most often use in criminology, religion, psychotherapy and New Age context ...’s memory had been adversely affected by traumatic experiences.

Most professionals divide memory functions into explicit and implicit memory (Zola-Morgan, 1990). Explicit memory comprises material that can easily be brought to consciousness, such as facts or lists of words.

Implicit memory refers to material that cannot be easily brought to onsciousness, such as how to ride a bicycle or play a piano. Patients with lesions of the hippocampus have specific deficits in explicit (declarative) memory, sometimes referred to as neurological amnesiaAmnesia is the partial or total inability to recall past experiences; may be of organic or emotional origin (Sadock, 2003) ....4 Another type of amnesiaAmnesia is the partial or total inability to recall past experiences; may be of organic or emotional origin (Sadock, 2003) ..., dissociative amnesiaAmnesia is the partial or total inability to recall past experiences; may be of organic or emotional origin (Sadock, 2003) ..., differs from neurological amnesiaAmnesia is the partial or total inability to recall past experiences; may be of organic or emotional origin (Sadock, 2003) ... (a consistent deficit in ability to learn new information). Dissociative amnesiaAmnesia is the partial or total inability to recall past experiences; may be of organic or emotional origin (Sadock, 2003) ... is seen primarily in traumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event ... victimsIn different sciences the term victim has different meanings. The term is most often use in criminology, religion, psychotherapy and New Age context ....

Disturbances of memory, including intrusive memories and dissociative amnesiaAmnesia is the partial or total inability to recall past experiences; may be of organic or emotional origin (Sadock, 2003) ..., are a part of the clinical presentation of PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor .... StressStress is not a useful term for scientists because it is such a highly subjective phenomenon that it defies definition. The term is in use from 1936 when Hans Selye defined stress as "the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change" ... is associated with damage of one part of the brain (hippocampus) and associated problems with new learning and memory (Sapolsky, 1996). StressStress is not a useful term for scientists because it is such a highly subjective phenomenon that it defies definition. The term is in use from 1936 when Hans Selye defined stress as "the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change" ... also inhibits the growth of neurons, or neurogenesis, in the hippocampus (Duman, 2001; Vermetten, 2003).

Patients with PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ... have deficits in verbal declarative memory (known to be mediated at least in part by the hippocampus), including learning lists of words or similar material (Bremner, 1993; Gilbertson, 2001). These memory deficits are different from the disturbances of memory listed as symptoms of PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ..., including dissociative amnesiaAmnesia is the partial or total inability to recall past experiences; may be of organic or emotional origin (Sadock, 2003) ... and intrusive memories, and similar to the deficits in patients with neurological amnesiaAmnesia is the partial or total inability to recall past experiences; may be of organic or emotional origin (Sadock, 2003) ... who have known hippocampal damage. Consistent with the hypothesis that stressStress is not a useful term for scientists because it is such a highly subjective phenomenon that it defies definition. The term is in use from 1936 when Hans Selye defined stress as "the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change" ... induced hippocampal damage is responsible for the verbal declarative memory deficits of PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ... are findings of smaller hippocampal volume in PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ... (Bremner, 1995; Bremner, 2002).

The wide range of memory disturbances associated with PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ... can lead to fragmentation and distortion of traumatic memories. On a biological level, stressStress is not a useful term for scientists because it is such a highly subjective phenomenon that it defies definition. The term is in use from 1936 when Hans Selye defined stress as "the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change" ... hormones such as cortisol and norepinephrine act at the level of the hippocampus and other brain regions to both inhibit and strengthen memory formation.

The time course of release of these hormones can influence the formation of the traumatic memory, leading to both strengthening and weakening of memory. Traumatic memories are memories for events related to a traumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event .... Such memories are different from neutral memories, involving an event in a person’s life that was not associated with exposure to a traumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event ..., although both are autobiographical in nature. Some researchers have questioned whether there are fundamental differences between neutral and traumatic memories (Kihlstrom, 1995).

Another factor contributing to the political culture surrounding legal aspects of the traumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event ... and memory debate is the controversy about the accuracy of delayed recall of traumatic eventPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event ...s. There are at least two studies in patients with PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ... showing an increase in memory distortion on so-called “false memory tasks” (Bremner, 2000; Clancy, 2000).

No study directly addresses the relationship between traumatic memories and recall accuracy. More recently a prospective investigation of human eyewitness memory for highly stressful events indicates that under conditions of extreme stressStress is not a useful term for scientists because it is such a highly subjective phenomenon that it defies definition. The term is in use from 1936 when Hans Selye defined stress as "the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change" ..., human memory is extremely poor (Morgan, 2004).

One study showed that memories of traumatic eventPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event ...s in Persian Gulf War veterans changed over time. Southwick et al. (Southwick, 1995) conducted a set of studies demonstrating that memory of traumatic eventPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event ...s is subject to considerable alteration over time. In the first study, Gulf War veterans were interviewed one month, two years, and six years after returning from the war (Southwick, 2002). When requestioned the first time, combat veterans changed their answers to specific questions about their traumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event ... exposure. The veterans were more likely to say, after being interviewed at a two-year point, that they had seen more traumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event ... than originally described. Although there was alteration in memory in nearly all subjects, the greatest changes were seen in veterans suffering from PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ..., and the more PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ... symptoms subjects had, the more they changed their answers. In the six-year follow-up study, alterations in memory (increase or decrease) were also significantly related to PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ... symptomatology. All subjects were absolutely convinced that their answers were right, even though they changed their answers each time and were sure that each answer was correct. The answers provided by the subjects were considered “inconsistent” rather than “inaccurate,” because the research team had no way of knowing which accounts were true. Separate studies by Roemer et al. (1998) and by North et al. (1997) have shown that many individuals with PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ... symptoms on one-year follow-up may deny symptoms they had previously endorsed. Roemer et al. (1998) reported that, while Gulf War veterans with and without PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ... were inconsistent when reporting traumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event ... exposure, veterans with PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ... provided significantly more inconsistencies than people without PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor .... Studies by Foa et al. (1995) and van der Kolk and Fisler (1995) also show that female rape victimsIn different sciences the term victim has different meanings. The term is most often use in criminology, religion, psychotherapy and New Age context ... may change their story to a significant degree and that memory in people who have highly stressful, life-threatening experiences may be “unorganized.”

In the final judgment of this case the Trial Chamber accepted defense testimony about inconsistencies of memory in individuals with PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ..., but that victimIn different sciences the term victim has different meanings. The term is most often use in criminology, religion, psychotherapy and New Age context ...’s primary memory provides compelling affirmation that the event has occurred, and other inconsistencies do not diminish credibility (ICTY Case 2004).

(T.J.)

References:

  • Prosecutor v. Anto Furundzija, ICTY Case No. IT-95-17/1-T. Available at www.un.org\icty (accessed May 10, 2004)
  • Zola-Morgan SM, Squire LR: The primate hippocampal formation: evidence for a time-limited role in memory storage. Science 1990; 250:288 –90
  • Bremner JD, Shobe KK, Kihlstrom JF: False memories in women with self-reported childhood sexual abuse: an empirical study. Psychol Sci 2000;11:333–7
  • Clancy SA, Schacter DL, McNally RJ, et al: False recognition in women reporting recovered memories of sexual abuse. Psychol Sci 2000; 11:26 –31
  • Morgan CA, Hazlett G, Doran A, et al: Accuracy of eyewitness memory for persons encountered during exposure to highly stressful personally relevant events. Int J Law Psychiatry 2004;27:265–79
  • North CS, Smith EM, Spitznagel EL: One-year follow-up of survivors of a mass shooting. Am J Psychiatry 1997;154:1696 –702

See also:

Victims’ Symptom Website: