Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/auth.php on line 154

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/auth.php:154) in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/auth.php on line 244

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/auth.php:154) in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/actions.php on line 131
Victims' Symptom : glossary:vicarious-trauma
 
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Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function ereg() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 52

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/lib/plugins/explain/syntax.php on line 54

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

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Deprecated: Function split() is deprecated in /home/victims/victims/public_html/dokuwiki-2007-06-26b/inc/parser/lexer.php on line 510

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Vicarious trauma

As Way (2004) reviews, term vicarious traumatization was first used by McCann and Pearlman in 1990 to describe pervasive changes that occur within clinicians over time as a result of working with clients who have experienced sexual traumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event .... These include changes in the clinician’s sense of self, spirituality, worldview, interpersonal relationships, and behavior (Chrestman, 1999; Freeman-Longo, 1997; Kassam-Adams, 1999). . Other terms for vicarious traumatization are compassion fatigue or secondary traumatic stressStress is not a useful term for scientists because it is such a highly subjective phenomenon that it defies definition. The term is in use from 1936 when Hans Selye defined stress as "the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change" ..., countertransference, and burnout.

Figley (1995) suggested compassion fatigue as the most appropriate term to describe secondary traumatic stressStress is not a useful term for scientists because it is such a highly subjective phenomenon that it defies definition. The term is in use from 1936 when Hans Selye defined stress as "the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change" ... effects. He suggested that clinicians who treat traumatized clients are particularly vulnerable to developing compassion fatigue as a result of empathic engagement with clients and exposure to their traumatic material. Countertransference refers to a clinician’s unconscious and conscious affective, behavioral, and cognitive response to a particular client’s transference (not specific to traumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event ... clients) within the treatment relationship . Burnout refers to a generalized emotional exhaustion that helping professionals may develop over time related to various work-related stressors (Figley, 1999).

An ethical concern is that vicarious trauma may interfere with clinicians’ ability to work effectively with clients (Pearlman, 1995).

(T.J.)

References:

  • Way I, Vandeusen KM, Martin G, Applegate B, Jandle D. Vicarious Trauma: A Comparison of Clinicians Who Treat Survivors of Sexual Abuse and Sexual Offenders. Journal of interpersonal violence, 2004; 19(1):49-71)
  • Freeman-Longo R E. Introduction:Apersonal and professional perspective on burnout. In S. B. Edmunds (Ed.), 1997. Impact: Working with sexual abusers (pp. 51-60). Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press.

See also: