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Victims' Symptom : glossary:torture
 
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Torture

Torture represents the most severe form of traumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event ... perpetrated by one human on another (Silove, 1996).

According to Sadock (2003) the intentional physical and psychological torture can cause such emotional efects that may be worse than those in combat and other types of traumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event .... Definition of United Nations says that „torture is any deliberate infliction of severe mental pain or suffering, usually through cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment“. Recent aproximations are that between 5 and 35 percent of the world's 14 million refugees have had at least one torture experience. Torture differs from other types of traumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event ... since it is human inflicted and intentional. Methods can be physical (beatings, burning of the skin, electric shock, or asphyxiation) or psychological (threats, humiliation, being forced to watch others, often loved ones, being tortured). It seems that final purpose of the torture is psychological effect, because the torturer induces fear, helplessness, physical and mental weakness in the victimIn different sciences the term victim has different meanings. The term is most often use in criminology, religion, psychotherapy and New Age context ....

Certain elements of torture may especially impact the posttraumatic symptoms (Silove, 1996): “the abuse is deliberate, and the perpetrators use methods that maximise fear, dread, and debility in the victimIn different sciences the term victim has different meanings. The term is most often use in criminology, religion, psychotherapy and New Age context ... (Reid et al, 1990), the traumaPsychological trauma can happen soon after witnessing or being the victim of a traumatic event ... is inescapable, uncontrollable, often repetitive, and conditions between torture sessions undermine the recovery capacity of the victimIn different sciences the term victim has different meanings. The term is most often use in criminology, religion, psychotherapy and New Age context ...; feeling of shame, anger, betrayal, and humiliation, erode the victimIn different sciences the term victim has different meanings. The term is most often use in criminology, religion, psychotherapy and New Age context ...'s sense of security, integrity, and self worth” (Goldfeld et al, 1988; Silove, 2002).

Prevalence rates of PTSDPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders that occur after a person sees, is involved in, or hears of an extreme traumatic stressor ... among victimsIn different sciences the term victim has different meanings. The term is most often use in criminology, religion, psychotherapy and New Age context ... of torture are nearly 36 percent which is much higher than the average lifetime prevalence (Sadock, 2003).

(T.J.)

References:

  • Sadock, B.J., Sadock, V.A. Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry. Ninth edition, Philadelphia; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003
  • Goldfeld AE, Mollica FR, Pesavento BH, Faraone SV. The physical and psychological sequelae of torture: Symptomatology and diagnosis. JAMA 1998;259:2725-2729

See also:

Victims’ Symptom Website: